ABSTRACT: Frontiers of national development and agricultural expansion constitute spaces of intense interaction, disputes and contestation. The Brazilian economy continues to largely rely on the opening of agribusiness frontiers in the west of country and, similar to what happened in the past, this is a phenomenon shaped by acute racism and discrimination against the Indigenous population. This article is focused on the emblematic experienced by the Guarani-Kaiowa on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. Their unique socio-spatial trajectory is analysed, making use of empirical results and regular visits to Indigenous communities. To understand this highly variegated geographical terrain, a new spatial typology is introduced. One of the key ﬁndings of the research is the latent agency by the Guarani-Kaiowa, which emerges from attachments to places, heritages and socio-ecological practices that led to an ability to take the initiative to advance their cause whenever and however the opportunities arise.
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