4. The student revolution
Latin American students have organized some of the largest mass mobilizations in the region’s recent history, calling for a free, universal system of high-quality education, from primary school to university. The students see this as key to ending the reproduction of inequality that continues to plague their societies.
The Chilean movement has been particularly strong and has influenced others in Brazil and elsewhere. Meanwhile, a new popular university in Honduras aims to equip students with the skills traditional education in the country fails to provide.
News related to this chapter
Emily Gregg has written blogs for LAB on the Colombian Peace Process and the legacy of El Salvador’s 1992 peace accords.
She is now studying for an MSc in the history of international relations at the London School of Economics with a focus on human rights and Latin America.
Valérie Abad (Universidad Católica): interviewed via Google Hangouts on 27 January 2018 by Tom Gatehouse. Translated by Matty Rose.
Marcelo Correa (CONES): interviewed in Santiago de Chile on 22 November 2016 by Nina Meghji. Transcribed by Nina Meghji.
Giorgio Jackson (former student leader, now congressional deputy and leader of Revolución Democrática party): interviewed in Santiago de Chile on 6 December 2011 by Roberto Navarrete (http://www.alboradafilms.net/). Translated by Rowan Ritchie.
Camila Lanes (UBES): interviewed in São Paulo on 13 December 2016 by Ali Rocha. Translated by Matty Rose.
Pavel Núñez (Universidad Clementina Suárez): interviewed in Tegucigalpa on 24 October and 2 November 2016 by Louise Morris. Translated by Louise Morris.
NB: All web references were checked and still available in May/June 2018 unless otherwise stated.
Alvarez Parra, N. (2011) ‘Camila Vallejo: “Es más de lo mismo pero con unos pesos más”’, La Tercera, 5 July
Arsht, A. and Sanchez Zinny, G. (2014) ‘Chile’s education system is the best in Latin America – so why is it being overhauled?’, Atlantic Council
Benedikter, R. and Zlosilo, M. (2017) ‘Chile’s 2017 presidential election: evaluating the second Bachelet government’, LSE Latin America and Caribbean Centre
Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura (2005) Informe de la Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura, Ministerio del Interior, Chile
Cultura Argentina (2015) El Nunca más y los crímenes de la dictadura, Ministerio de Cultura, Argentina
Duriez, M., López, V. and Moncada, G. (2016) Informe Nacional: Honduras, Educación Superior en Iberoamérica, CINDA
Franklin, J. (2006) ‘Protests paralyse Chile’s education system’, The Guardian, 7 June
Llanos del Corral, M. (no date) ‘Ways of Doing Development Differently: Methodologies for Adaptive & Systemic Development’ Plymouth University
Long, G. (2011) ‘Chile student protests point to deep discontent’, BBC News
Palhares, I. and Toledo, L.F. (2016) ‘Estudo aponta ‘reorganização velada’ no Estado de São Paulo’, O Estado de S. Paulo, 28 June
Pensado, J. (2012) ‘Student activism’, ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America
Santana, A. (2016) ‘Escola sem Partido: entenda o que é movimento que divide opiniões na Educação’, EBC
Stromquist, N.P. and Sanyal, A. (2013) ‘Student resistance to neoliberalism in Chile’, International Studies in Sociology of Education 23(2): 152–78
History of student protest and repression in Latin America
- Cocking, L. (2016) ‘Mexico Remembers The 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre’, Culture Trip
- Costanti, G. (2018) ‘”Vivíamos o momento”: os 50 anos da Passeata dos Cem Mil’, CartaCapital, (in Portuguese)
- Hernandez, V. (2011) ‘Argentina marks “Night of the Pencils”’, BBC News
- Perera, V. (1975) ‘Law and order in Chile’, The New York Times
Máfia da Merenda/Primavera Secundarista/Escola sem Partido
- Alegria, P. and Moresco, M. (2017) ‘Occupy and resist! School occupations in Brazil’, openDemocracy
- Dorcadie, M. (2016) ‘Corruption in São Paulo snatches food out of the mouths of children’, Equal Times
- Ioris, R.R. (2016) ‘Occupying High School in Brazil’, NACLA
- Kaiser, A.J. (2019) ‘Brazil’s Bolsonaro dismisses “imbecile students” as he faces biggest protests yet‘, The Guardian
- Lanes, C. (2017) ‘Quanto vale o nosso futuro?’, Mídia NINJA, (in Portuguese)
- Meireles, D. (2017) ‘Neutrality in the public education system: does it exist?’, Diggit Magazine
- Prengaman, P. and Dilorenzo, S. (2016) ‘Brazilian students occupy high schools nationwide to protest budget cuts’, The Independent
- Pureza, F. (2016) ‘Brazil’s Student Upsurge’, Jacobin
The Chicago Boys/voucher school system
- Garcia, A. (2017) ‘Chile’s School Voucher System: Enabling Choice or Perpetuating Social Inequality?’, New America
- Opazo, T. (2016) ‘The Boys Who Got to Remake an Economy’, Slate
- Pribble, J. and Erkulwater, J.L. (2017) ‘Betsy DeVos wants “school choice”. Chile tried that already’, The Washington Post
- Reel, M. (2006) ‘Chile’s Student Activists: A Course in Democracy’, The Washington Post
- Volger, J. (2006) ‘Chile: The Rise of the Penguin Revolution’, Upside Down World
The Chilean Winter
- Franklin, J. (2011) ‘Chile’s Commander Camila, the student who can shut down a city’, The Guardian
- Manning, K. (2011) ‘In Chile, Protesting Students Tweak Tweets to Win Global Support’, Wired
- Taylor, A. (2011) ‘Student Protests in Chile’, The Atlantic
The Frente Amplio
- Benedikter, R. and Zlosilo, M. (2017) ‘Chile’s 2017 presidential election: the alliances and aspirations of Piñera and Guillier’, LSE Latin America and Caribbean Centre
- Céspedes, S. and Saavedra, J. (2017) ‘Broadening the Front’, Alborada
- González Le Saux, M. (2017) ‘Chile is Not Saved’, NACLA
- Rojas, René. (2017) ‘The Return of Chile’s Left’, Jacobin
Universidad Clementina Suárez
- Oseguera, K. (2017) ‘La Clementina Suárez; una Universidad fuera de lo común’, RadioHouse.hn (in Spanish)