3. LGBT rights: the rainbow tide
Latin American countries have passed some of the world’s most advanced pro-LGBT laws. However, rates of discrimination, violence, and murder affecting gay and trans people are extremely high, especially in Brazil and Central America.
LGBT people are campaigning for same-sex marriage, laws against homophobia and pathologization, and the right to change gender identity by simple administrative procedures, though the churches, both Catholic and Evangelical, present a formidable barrier.
Ali Rocha is a news and documentary producer who has contributed to the BBC, Channel Four, ITN, Al Jazeera English and SBS (Australia) on their Brazil coverage since 2003. She is a human rights activist and researches police violence in Brazil.
She now runs social media group Brazil Matters, aimed at drawing international attention to social, environmental and human rights issues in Brazil.
Edgardo Fernández (tango teacher and LGBT activist): interviewed in Buenos Aires on 7 November 2016 by Nina Meghji. Translated by Dominic Power.
Michel Riquelme and Jimena Norambuena (OTD Chile): interviewed in Santiago de Chile on 24 November 2016 by Nina Meghji. Transcribed by Nina Meghji.
Jean Wyllys (PSOL deputy for Rio de Janeiro): interviewed in Rio de Janeiro on 8 December 2016 by Ali Rocha. Translated by Jennifer Alexander and Hugo Moss.
NB: All web references were checked and still available in May/June 2018 unless otherwise stated.
AlJazeera (2017) ‘Chile’s Bachelet sends gay marriage bill to congress’, 28 August
Ativistas Independentes (2017) ‘Judith Butler, a propagadora de odio’, 10 November
BBC (2017) ‘Chile leader sends gay marriage bill to congress’, 29 August
Carroll, A. and Mendos, L. R. (2017) State Sponsored Homophobia 2017: A World Survey of Sexual Orientation Laws 2017: Criminalisation, Protection and Recognition, International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), Geneva, May
Chiam, Z., Duffy, S. and González Gil, M. (2017) ‘Trans Legal Mapping Report 2017: Recognition before the Law‘, ILGA, Geneva, November
Cowie, S. (2018) ‘Violent deaths of LGBT people in Brazil hit all-time high’, The Guardian, 22 January
El Destape (2017) ‘El controvertido proyecto de Macri que pone en peligro al matrimonio igualitario’
Frayssinet, F. (2014) ‘Comprehensive sex education: a pending task in Latin America’, Inter Press Service
Ghoshal, N. (2018) ‘For LGBT rights, 2018 will be the year of the courts’, Human Rights Watch
Giraldo, I. (2017) ‘The “gender ideology” menace and the rejection of the peace agreement in Colombia’, Discover Society
Jenkin, M. (2016) ‘Electric shocks, rape and submersion: “gay cures” and the fight to end them’, The Guardian, 9 February
La Nación (2009) video fragment of interview with Mauricio Macri
Lindner, J. (2017) ‘CCJ aprova reconhecimento de união estável e casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo’, Estadão, 3 May
Moloney, A. (2018) ‘Gays in Ecuador raped and beaten in rehab clinics to “cure” them’, Reuters, 8 February
Phillips, D. (2017) ‘Brazilian judge approves “gay conversion therapy”, sparking national outrage’, The Guardian, 19 September
Pulliam Bailey, S. (2017) ‘How the prosperity gospel is sparking a major change in predominantly Catholic Brazil’, Washington Post, 29 October
Rossi, M. and Novaes, M. (2015) ‘Os direitos básicos aos quais transexuais e travestis não têm acesso’, El País Brasil, 28 August
Seligson, M. and Moreno Morales, D. (2010) ‘Gay in the Americas’, Americas Quarterly
Stewart, K. (2017) ‘School books with section on gender equality cause uproar in Peru’, VICE News
Strobl, T. (2017) ‘Brazil as world LGBT murder capital and Rio’s place in the data’, RioOnWatch
Transgender Europe (2016) ‘Transgender Day of Visibility 2016 – Trans Murder Monitoring update’
UN OHCHR (UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) (2016) ‘“Pathologization – Being lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans is not an illness”, for International Day against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia’, 17 May
UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) (n.d.) ‘Comprehensive sexuality education’
- Berezowsky Ramirez, D. (2018) ‘Latin America Could Lead the Way for LGBT Rights in 2018’, Human Rights Watch
- Corrales, J. (2012) ‘LGBT rights in the Americas’, Americas Quarterly
- Corrales, J. (2018) ‘Latin America’s 2018 LGBT year in review’, Global Americans
- Corrales, J. and Sabatini, C. (2018) ‘The Gap Between Legal Progress and Daily Realities for LGBT People in Latin America’, World Politics Review
- Encarnación, O.G. (2018) ‘Latin America’s Rights Riddle’, Foreign Policy
- Encarnación, O.G. (2018) ‘A Latin American Puzzle: Gay Rights Landscapes in Argentina and Brazil’, Human Rights Quarterly 40, pp. 194–218
Jean Wyllys and Brazil
- De Paula, M. (2014) ‘Interview with Federal Deputy Jean Wyllys’, Heinrich Böll Stiftung
- Faiola, A. and Lopes, M. (2019) ‘LGBT rights threatened in Brazil under new far-right president’, The Washington Post
- The Guardian (2019) ‘Brazil’s sole openly gay congressman leaves country after death threats’, The Guardian
- Wyllys, J. (n.d.) ‘The Struggle for the Rights of LGBT People in Brazil’, Parliamentarians for Global Action
Edgardo Fernández and Argentina
- Parker Stainback, M. (2017) ‘Tango in Argentina’, National Geographic Traveller
- Usborne, D. (2015) ‘Argentina: Transgender women suffer spate of murders as country introduces laws recognising LGBT rights’, The Independent
- World Politics Review (2017) ‘What Drove Argentina’s Emergence as an LGBT Rights Leader’, World Politics Review
LGBT rights in Chile
- Chambers, J. (2018) ‘Chile transgender: ‘Growing up here is torture’’, BBC News
- Chirinos, M. (2018) ‘HISTORIC: Gender Identity Law Takes Effect in Chile’, Human Rights Campaign
- Romney, J. (2018) ‘Daniela Vega: the transgender star lighting up the film industry’, The Observer
- SBS News (2017) ‘Clashes in Chile as right-wing Catholic group protests LGBT rights’