5. Indigenous peoples and the rights of nature
In recent decades, indigenous people have displayed a new confidence and pride in their identity, using changes in the law at national and international level in order to defend themselves, their territory, and their culture, particularly against the extractive industries.
They have been engaging with aspects of mainstream Western culture such as higher education and communications technology, reaching beyond the borders of their country in a struggle that is becoming increasingly global.
Linda Etchart is a lecturer in Human Geography at Kingston University, London. She has taught at Birkbeck College, University of London, and Anglia Ruskin University. She was an editor at Pluto Press, and a programme officer for the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Her published work is in the area of con-flict transformation and the role of indigenous peoples in global governance.Interviews
Alicia Cawiya (vice president of the Huaorani people): interviewed in Quito and Puyo, Ecuador, on 16 and 20 August 2016 by Linda Etchart and James Thackara. Translated by Linda Etchart.
Juan Ch’oc (Crique Sarco village): interviewed in Crique Sarco, Belize, on 14 October 2016 by Rachel Simon. Transcribed by Rachel Simon.
Eriberto Gualinga (Sarayaku Kichwa communications director/film-maker): interviewed in Sarayaku, Ecuador, on 20 August 2016 by Linda Etchart and James Thackara. Translated by Linda Etchart.
Patricia Gualinga (Sarayaku Kichwa activist): interviewed in Puyo, Ecuador, on 24 August 2016 by Linda Etchart and James Thackara. Translated by Linda Etchart.
Fany Kuiru (Tejedoras de Memoria): interviewed in Bogotá on 12 August 2016 by Gwen Burnyeat. Translated by Olivia Plato and Hebe Powell.
Eva Sánchez (Las Hormigas): interviewed in Intibucá, Honduras, on 26 October 2016 by Louise Morris. Translated by Louise Morris.
Ayme Tanguila (Kichwa architect and urbanist): interviewed in Quito on 27 August 2016 by Linda Etchart. Translated by Linda Etchart.
Froyla Tzalam (SATIIM): interviewed in Punta Gorda, Belize, on 10 October 2016 by Rachel Simon. Transcribed by Rachel Simon
NB: All web references were checked and still available in May/June 2018 unless otherwise stated.
Balch, O. (2013) ‘Buen vivir: the social philosophy inspiring movements in South America’, The Guardian, 4 February
Barrett, P.M. (2013) ‘Canada says ‘No thanks’ to Chevron pollution suit’, Bloomberg Businessweek, 2 May
Diamond, J. (2005) Guns, Germs, and Steel, 2nd edn, Vintage, London.
Etchart, L. (2018) ‘Ecuador, Chevron and the extractor’s curse’’, three-part article series, LAB, London, 17 September
Forst, M. (2017) cited in F. Martone, ‘Defenders of the earth and the environment’, Other News, 12 November
Galeano, E. (1971) Open Veins of Latin America, translated from the Spanish by C. Belfrage (1997), Monthly Review Press, New York.
Miller, T. (2003) ‘Ecuador: Texaco leaves trail of destruction’, Corpwatch
Cullinan, C. (2010) ‘The Legal Case for the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth’, Global Alliance for the Rights of Nature
Etchart, Linda (2014/2015) ‘Demilitarizing the global: Women’s peace movements and transnational networks’ in Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt (eds) A Handbook on Transnational feminist movements: Knowledge, power and social change. New York: Oxford University Press
Etchart, L. (2017) ‘The Role of Indigenouse Peoples in Combating Climate Change‘, Palgrave-MacMillan
Forst, M. (2017). ‘Situation of human rights defenders’, United Nations General Assembly
Global Witness (2018) ‘Deadliest year on record for land and environmental defenders as agribusiness is shown to be the industry most linked to killings’, Global Witness
Gudynas, E. (2011) ‘Buen Vivir: Today’s tomorrow’, Development 54(4), 441–447
Parker, A. (2018) ‘Latin America Deadliest Region for Environmental Defenders: Report’, Insight Crime
Riffo, L. (2017) ‘Fracking and Resistance in the Land of Fire’, Nacla Report on the Americas, Vol 49, No 4, Winter
Wearne, P. (1996) The Return of the Indian: Conquest and Revival in the Americas. London: Cassell/Latin American Bureau. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Additional resources by country:
Arnold, C.F. (2018) The Third Bank of the River. New York: Picador
Yanomami, D. K. (2013) The Falling Sky: Words of a Yanomami Shaman. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap/Harvard University Press
Simon, R. (2017) ‘Belize: Conservation in the forest.’ Latin America Bureau
Simon, R. (2017) ‘Belize: Teechaz gat yuh bak’, Latin America Bureau
Tzalam, F. (2017) ‘Mapping on our terms’, Cultural Survival Quarterly, pp. 10-11
Burnyeat, G. (2018) Chocolate, Politics and Peace-Building: An Ethnography of the Peace Community of San José de Apartadó, Colombia. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
Casement, R. (1997) The Amazon Journal of Roger Casement. London, Anaconda Editions.
Farje, J. (2012) ‘The Putumayo Atrocities’, Latin America Bureau
Hardenburg, W. E. (1913) The Putumayo, the Devil’s Paradise
Hill, D. (2018) ‘‘The war goes on’: one tribe caught up in Colombia’s armed conflict’, The Guardian
O Siochain, S. (2011) ‘More power to the Indians’: Roger Casement, the Putumayo, and indigenous rights’, Irish Journal of Anthropology, 14 (2). pp. 5-12
Ramírez, M.C. (2011) Between the Guerrillas and the State: The Cocalera Movement, Citizenship and Identity in the Colombian Amazon. Durham: Duke University Press.
Tóibín, C. (2016) ‘Colm Tóibín on Roger Casement’, The Casement Project
Acosta. A. (2017) ‘Living Well: Ideas for reinventing the future’, Third World Quarterly. Vol 38, No 12.
Acosta, A. (2017) ‘Rethinking the world from the perspective of Buen Vivir’, Degrowth
Acosta, A. (2010). ‘Toward the Universal Declaration of Rights of Nature Thoughts for action.’ Global Alliance for the Rights of Nature
Arasim, E. (2016) ‘Mujeres Por La Selva – Indigenous Women of Ecuador Stand for an Amazon Free from Extraction on International Women’s Day’, Women’s Voices for Climate Justice
Becker, M. (2012) ¡Pachakutik! Indigenous Movements and Electoral Politics in Ecuador. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield
Etchart, L. (2017) ‘One Woman Against Big Oil and Patriarchy’, New Internationalist
Etchart, L. (2018) ‘Ecuador, Chevron and the extractor’s curse’’, three-part article series, LAB, London, 17 September.
Febres Cordero, B. (2017) ‘In the Depths of the Ecuadorian Amazon, Digital Communications Aid the Process of Self-Determination’, NewsFrames
Gonzalez, D. (2018) ‘At Home in the Jungle, Everything Is ‘Alive and Has a Spirit’’, The New York Times
Melo, M. (2001) ‘How the Recognition of the Rights of Nature Became a Part of the Ecuadorian Constitution’, in The Rights of Nature: the case for a Universal Declaration for the Rights of Mother Earth. San Francisco: Global Exchange and Council of Canadians
Miller, T. C. (2003) ‘Ecuador: Texaco Leaves Trail of Destruction’, Corpwatch
Peel, N. (2011) ‘Blood of the Amazon by Nicola Peel – preview’, The Guardian
Riofrio, I. (2018) ‘Ecuador Sarayaku Leader Patricia Gualinga Defends Territory Despite Threats’, Mongabay
Sawyer, S. (2004) Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Vidal, J. (2010) ‘Andean Voices: Alberto Acosta’, The Guardian
Ford, L. (2017) ‘We lost a great leader’: Berta Caceres still inspires as murder case takes fresh twist. The Guardian
Grandin, G. (2016) ‘Before her murder, Berta Caceres singled out Hillary Clinton for criticism’, The Nation
Malkin, E. (2017) ‘Who ordered killing of Honduran Activist? Evidence of broad plot is found.’ The New York Times
Pearce, F. (2017) ‘In Honduras, Defending Nature is a Deadly Business’, Yale Environment 360